OCR 5339 is a novel serum-based biomarker assay that determines disease severity and provides a prediction of the progression of scleroderma.
Yale University investigators have developed a new MR imaging method that accelerates image acquisition beyond conventional and parallel imaging methods. Rather than using linear encoding gradients as employed by current parallel imaging methods, O-space imaging utilizes nonlinear fields as encoding gradients and eliminates phase encoding. Since the spatial encoding gradient shapes are tailored to an existing surface coil array, more efficient use is made of the spatial information in the coil profiles. As an added benefit, nonlinear gradients may be ramped faster than linear gradients, further reducing image acquisition times.
Many Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) techniques are time constrained (e.g. MRI of solids, or functional MRI (fMRI)). As a result, they may try to use a compressed data sampling approach to speed the image acquisition. In compressed sampling, an under-sampled k-space data set is acquired, instead of the full, dense-sampling of k-space points. However, missing k-space points introduce artifacts in the Fourier-transform approach to image reconstruction, which can make the approach unusable. Yale researchers in the Barrett lab have recently developed a method for image reconstruction that uses reasonable constraints on the sparse data, along with a difference map algorithm, in order to 'fill in' the missing k-space data. The approach results in an image that is nearly artifact-free, and that can lead to higher spatial resolution. The method makes Difference Mapping (DM) applicable to MRI images for the first time. It is faster and can handle much larger data sets than commonly used interpolation tools. Most importantly, it makes much higher image quality possible for the most common reconstruction method in use, the Fast Fourier Transform.
Researchers at Yale have identified a specific HPV DNA methylation signature in cervical cells that may have prognostic value for cervical cancer.
Researchers at Yale University have developed a unique PCR-based fecal diagnostic test that can predict the onset of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).
Proteomic analysis of cord blood samples obtained at birth has identified biomarkers that correlate with the development of Early Onset Neonatal Sepsis (EONS) and with an adverse neonatal outcome that is independent of gestational age at birth and birth weight. These protein markers represent the basis for a diagnostic test that could easily be automated. Cord blood sampling is used to monitor cord blood gases at delivery so sampling for this assay would be routine. Such an assay would provide the physician with a rapid and accurate assessment of the risk of EONS in newborns.
In a collaborative study, Yale researchers have developed a novel DNA-based diagnostic that detects mutations in ion channels in patients presenting with hypertension due to primary aldosteronism (PA). Somatic mutations cause increased sodium ion conductance, cell depolarization, and intracellular calcium levels have been revealed in 47% of sporadically occurring aldosterone-producing adenomas. This test may eliminate the requirement for the conventional, yet invasive, adrenal vein sampling, thereby streamlining the diagnostic evaluation of severe hypertension. Furthermore, this technology can indicate a direct diagnosis for a surgically correctable form of the disease, in which an adrenalectomy can cure hypertension and correct hypokalemia in the large majority of patients with increased aldosterone due to PA. Most importantly, this genetic test can be used as a stand-alone or a companion diagnostic in all patients with worsening or difficult-to-treat hypertension leading to markedly improved care and reduced overall costs. In addition to this, antibody therapy could be developed to inhibit or decrease the mutated potassium channel activity, and thereby present a new therapeutic option for treatment of this patient group
A researcher at Yale has identified a novel biomarker in serum that, along with another commonly assessed physiological indicator can differentiate patients with schizophrenia from healthy individuals and those with major depression. The biomarker results are interpreted by an index, which is based upon a clear physiological dysfunction. The biomarker levels in subjects with schizophrenia show a distinctly different response pattern than both healthy controls and subjects with depression. The results indicate the sensitivity and specificity of this biomarker to remarkably distinguish between the groups tested, in particular for identifying individuals with schizophrenia. Patients who are considered to be “prodromal” or who are undergoing initial intervetion can be screened or monitored, respectively, using this test and scoring matrix.